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Floriculture in India : The Un-Noticed Emerging Economy

Floriculture in India

Floriculture, commonly referred to as flower cultivation, is rapidly making its mark in the industry. Maharashtra is one of the leading producers of flowers in the country. Moreover, floriculture in India alone is a significant part of the big cake (GDP) in India. It alone accounts for around INR 266 billion as per statistics by Statista. 


[Source: Statista]

Floriculture is practised in almost 140 countries in the world. Also, the Netherlands excels in floriculture, producing the majority of flowers. While Germany stands tall in importing most of the flowers the world produces. The key customers in this field are USA and Japan. 

Floriculture in India comprises flowers such as Roses, Tuberoses, Anthurium, Carnations, Marigold, etc. The farming, cropping, and cultivation of flowers take place in farmlands as well as poly and greenhouses (advanced farmlands having multilevel farming facilities).

What is Floriculture?: A Discussion About its Importance in India

The branch of horticulture that deals with the cultivation of ornamental plants, their marketing, and sales are known as floral horticulture or floriculture. Although floriculture is largely considered temperate horticulture or a greenhouse industry. Contrary to this, many crops among these are grown in large fields and open nurseries. 

Do Read: All about Greenhouse farming in India.

Floriculture in India or elsewhere in the world has its own importance when it comes to supplying ornamental plants for special events and occasions. Be it living humans, dead or even celebrating survival, they all look for something decorative that makes them feel special. Moreover, flowers rank among the top priorities of humans and are considered a symbol of courtesy or respect.

Take political events, for example; every politician, while his/her visit, casts an impression on his/her mate with a florist’s special in the area. 

Something About Types of Floriculture in India

The different types of floriculture that are flourishing in India are as mentioned below:

1. Bedding Plants

Bedding Plants

These plants primarily grow in nurseries in the early days. While they grow in outdoor areas during the season. The majority of this category are annual blooming plants and are well gelled with vegetable crops for the sustainability of the soil.

Some examples of these types of flowering plants are:

Petunia, Busy Lizzie, Lobelia, etc.

2. Herbaceous Ornamental Perennials

Herbaceous Ornamental Perennials

These plants are non-woody plants that grow and develop as a part of their original part, continuously growing as bulbs, tubers, or grow as seeds. In addition, these crops are grown inside greenhouse nurseries and produced throughout the rest of the lifecycle in the open. These types of plants cold-sensitive and, thus, if exposed to harsh winter conditions, will dry up.

Some examples of herbaceous ornamental plants are as follows:

Coneflower, columbine, Hostas, Plox, etc.

3. Potted crops 

Potted crops

These crops grow, cultivated, marketed and sold in a pot throughout their lifecycle. Moreover, as per reports, these are one of the most sought-after flowering plants in floriculture. These can cultivate throughout the year, depending upon environmental conditions. Due to the time taking process and specifically required environmental conditions, these plants are costlier than other types of floriculture plants.

Some examples of potted plants are as follows:

Mums, poinsettias, Easter Lilies, Shamrocks, etc.

4. Indoor Foliage

Indoor Foliage

These crops cultivate and grow in tropical and sub-tropical regions on the planet. These plants are known for their unusually large and colourful leaves. Moreover, these plants are evergreen plants in floriculture. Used for conditional outdoor displays, these plants are special in temperate regions. Thus it used for decor outdoors, indoors, etc.

Some examples of this type are:

Bromeliads, Ferns, Devil’s Evy, etc.

5. Cut Flowers

Cut Flowers

These do not qualify as complete flowers as part of them to sold independently. In addition, arrangements as per the suitability of the occasion. Also, these kinds are most commonly used in weddings, birthday celebrations, etc. Some of the examples are:

Baby’s breath, Carnations, Lilies, etc.

Commercial floriculture: How to start a floriculture business in India?

Various steps are involve in commercial floriculture. But let us cut it short for your convenience. Breaking down in simple steps, we have:

  • Planning 

As planning is important for every event to successfully occur or take place, the intitals must be performed. Before floriculture commences its proceedings in the market, it should be well researched, and required appliances like refrigerators should be bought to keep the flowers fresh.

  • Don’t start without mentors

Mentors build the pillar for your business. Moreover, if your concepts aren’t clear about prime strategies to focus upon. Seek help! 

  • Be innovative and do your homework

As floriculture requires utmost care and attention. In addition, you need to be innovative and use the latest tech in the greenhouse concept.

  • Raise the required capital

You are in floriculture business in India because you are a marginal farmer. In such scenarios, you need to raise the capital from an external source.

  • Make the online and offline presence

As soon as you grab the offer, go online! And open stores offline as well.

  • Floriculture Business Cost

Hence, in the above five steps, you can start a floriculture business in India. In addition, it may cost up to INR 30,000 for starting up a floriculture business.

The Scope of Floriculture in India

As far as India and its soil are concerned, both have variations across the map suitable for floriculture. Moreover, as per demand, India is located between Europe and East Asia (the largest flower markets). The winter conditions in most Indian terrain are mostly mild and is suitable for most flower types. Also, it is a well-acknowledged fact that in winter, flower demand is remarkably high. 

Thus, in addition to the above factors, the Indian labour force is very cheap and can easily hire as a marginal attribute to profit. As per reports, the international market is growing at 8-10% and the domestic market at 20-25% annually.

With such a demand, floriculture is becoming a larger part of core farming day by day. And, therefore, the scope as well.

Read Also  – Emerging Trends in Agriculture & Future of Indian Agriculture

Governmental Floriculture Schemes in India

The government of India has launched schemes to promote floriculture in India. Also, its objective is to build infrastructure and provide good seed access to farmers. Who are ready to be a part of floriculture. Furthermore, as per government norms, the farmers that are involve in floriculture were trained how perform commercial farming. Hence, the government is focussing on building linkage gaps between farmers and buyers. Names of some governmental floriculture schemes in India are as follows:

  • National Floriculture Mission 2021
  • Vertical Garden scheme by the Kerala government
  • Andhra Government’s micro Irrigation scheme for floriculture

Floriculture Vs Horticulture

Here are some differences between horticulture and floriculture.

S.No. Floriculture Horticulture
1. This branch involves cultivation and marketing of flowers. It is the branch that deals with growing and managing garden plants.
2. This category involves the cultivation of flowering and foliage plants. This branch involves the cultivation of garden crops, fruits, and vegetables.
3. This branch mainly involves the ornamental trade, cosmetic industry and pharmaceutical industry. This branch mainly involves growing nutritious gardening plants that yield fruits and vegetables.

The final words

Floriculture is slowly but steadily pacing up with horticulture. Also, we have a variety of scopes for floriculture in India, and hence the commercialization of flowers is also possible. Furthermore, the new government schemes launched in 2021 paved the way for hobbyists and new farmers. What are your thoughts on it? Do comment.

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