Hello readers! We are here with a complete guide regarding Apple Farming. So, if you are interested to begin, stay with the blog.
Apple is the highest consuming fruit than other fruits as it is healthy and tasty. It is also considered the most profitable fruit crop because of its high consumption and medicinal values. Apple is an essential part of the rose family of the genus Malus. It is recognized as a temperate fruit, which can be grown in mild temperature regions. For good growth, the fruit requires a considerable period of dormancy, well-drained soil, careful pruning and a rigorous pest-management program.
Apples can be eaten fresh or served in various ways like salad, cake etc. In the case of health, most doctors suggest apples during health issues. As we know, “one apple a day keeps the doctor away”. Apples provide vitamins A and C, carbohydrates, and fibre. The U.S, China, France, Italy, and Turkey are the most famous apple producers in the World. Among them, China is the largest apple producing country. On the other hand, India has several states involved in apple farming. Let’s see them.
Top 6 Apple Producing States in India
Among all the apple farming states, we are here with India’s 6 most apple producing states.
1. Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the state to contribute around 77.71% of the total apple production of India. The total apple production of this state is around 1808.33 tonnes.
2. Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh covers 19.19% of apple fruit production globally. In addition, unique kinShaktiman Grimme potato planter machineds of apples like Mollies, Gala, Anna, Rich-e-Red and many more are produced in India.
Uttarakhand produces about 2.52% of apple plantation in India. The government is also taking efforts for apple production techniques in Dehradun areas. In the previous year, 58.66 tonnes of apple production done by Uttarakhand.
4. Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh reserved its place in the top apple growing states in India by contributing 0.32%. According to reports, Arunachal Pradesh secured 3rd position by providing 7.35 tonnes of apples.
Nagaland covers 0.09% of apple production globally. Marginal farmers are growing apples because it helps them to make money. Its 1.99 tonnes of apple production done by Nagaland farmers.
6. Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu stands on this list with an apple production of 0.01 tonnes. The state has favourable climate conditions with low temperatures for apple farming. It will help to increase apple production to a large extent.
After knowing the most apple producing states of India, we should know about the popular varieties of apple.
Top 10 Apple Varieties In India
There are more than 15 apple varieties in India. But we are here with the top 10 famous apple varieties. Although some of the particular apple varieties are cultivated in India, and remains are imported. So, let’s check the prominent types in detail.
1. Ambri Apple
The Ambri Apple is the pride of Kashmir and is also known as Kashmiri Apple. The north Indian reason widely consumes this variety due to its sweet aroma. It has a greenish and red exterior.
2. McIntosh Apple
McIntosh apples come from the hilly areas of Uttarakhand, UP and Himachal Pradesh. These apples are best for raw eating due to their soft, creamy and mealy flesh. It helps in making apple butter.
3. Granny Smith
This apple’s taste, aroma, and texture make it the most classic variety of apples. People use it to make beverages, cakes, jams, desserts and candies. Also, it has several medicinal advantages.
It is a classic sweet apple variant and is famous for its crispy texture and sweetness. Farmers can export it due to its ability to last its freshness and crispy texture for a long time.
5. Chaubattia Anupam
It is a hybrid variety found by the crossing of Red Delicious and Early Shanburry. Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand are the prime producers of this apple variety.
6. Golden Delicious
As the name says, this apple variety has beautiful greenish-yellow skin. The subtle aroma, smooth texture and delightful sweet flavour of this variety make it popular among all types.
Sunehari is a variety of hybrid apples, which comes from the crossing of Golden delicious and Ambri apples. It has crunchy and juicy flesh with a sweet- acetous taste.
8. Fuji Apple
This apple’s delicious taste, sweet flesh, subtle flavour, and crisp texture provide it with a well-known recognition. The fruit size of this variety compared to others.
9. Tydeman’s Early
This variety comes from the hilly areas of J&K and Himachal Pradesh. It has a red colour with a yellowish-green base, making it more widespread. People use it in the form of desserts and fresh salads.
10. Red Delicious
The name of this variety is taken from its dark red colour and delicious taste. It comes from the mountains of Himachal Pradesh. People use this variety to prepare salads, chutneys and jams. Apart from this, it is best for raw eating.
Apart from these, the Fuji Apple, Cortland Apple, Red Delicious Apple, Gala Apple, Granny Smith Apple, Braeburn Apple, etc. are also famous for commercial farming.
Apple Health Benefits
As we know, doctors always suggest eating apples due to their high medicinal advantages and health benefits of Apple. So let’s see some advantages of eating apples.
- Apples are good for blood pressure and cholesterol
- Eating foods with fiber, including apples, can aid digestion
- Apples can support a healthy immune system
- Apples are also a diabetes-friendly fruit and prevent diabetes risk
- The antioxidants in apples play a vital role in cancer prevention
- Eating apples can support healthy weight loss
- Apples also help to control Alzheimer’s disease
- It could be good for your heart
- Apple helps to prevent chances of diseases and boost immunity
- It may also help to protect your brain and support fighting asthma
Methods of Apple Cultivation in India
In the below section, we will learn about the tips and methods of apple farming in detail.
1. Climate required
For the good growth of any crop, a suitable climate is a factor that farmers highly consider. Likewise, farmers need to understand the climate required for apple farming to get high apple production. Apple crops can grow at altitudes 1,500 m to 2,700 m. above sea level. A suitable temperature for apple growing should be around 21 C to 24 C.
Also, 100 cm to 125 cm of annual rainfall is enough for apple trees that give the best growth and fruiting. However, remember that too much rainfall and fog near the fruit maturity period will reduce fruit quality and colour development. It also causes fungal spots on the apple fruit surface. High-velocity winds are also not suitable for apple farming.
2. Soil requirement
Loamy soils with high organic matter content and PH of 5.5-6.5 are suitable apple cultivation soil. Well-drained soil and no waterlogging are the primary reasons for the excellent quality of apples.
3. Propagation of Apple
Commercial propagation in Apple performs in 2 ways tongue grafting and budding. First, apple farming techniques need material while planting, and they will be bought from nurseries.
4. Planting and Spacing
The average number of apple plants in a one-hectare area could vary from 200 to 1250. For the plantation of these plants, 4 different planting density ranges apply. The density ranges include Low (less than 300 apple saplings per hectare), medium (300 to 500 apple seedlings per hectare), high (500 to 1300 saplings per hectare) and extremely high density (more than 1300 saplings per hectare). Farmers can also use a combo of scion and rootstock variety aid to determine the apple plant spacing and planting density unit area.
5. Apple Planting Method
The planting method of apple farming differs according to the planting area or climate conditions. For example, the Square system or Hexagonal system of plantation is applied in the valleys. On the other hand, the contour method is usually followed on the slopes. Proper setting of apple fruit requires planting the pollinating species of apples among the main species and planting Golden Delicious, and Red Delicious as the Department of Horticulture recommends pollinators to establish a Royal Delicious variety. 30 kg to 40 kg FYM (Farm Yard Manure), 500 g Single Superphosphate and 50 g Malathion Dust is applied in each pit by mixing it well.
6. Manures and Fertilizers
Farm yard manure (FMY) is best along with other fertilizers at 10 kg per year of tree age. The K, P, and N ratio used in an orchard of optimum fertility is 70:35:70 grams per year. The standard fertilizer dose of P, K and N is 400 g. 250 grams and 500 grams, respectively. Use suitable fertilizers for deficiency of Boron, Zinc, Manganese and Calcium.
7. Weed Management in Apple
Weed control in Apple farming by Involving Gammaxone/Paraquat (0.5% ) or glyphosate @ 800 ml/ha as the post-emergence herbicide will kill the weed maturing for 4 to 5 months.
8. Apple Irrigation
For productive apple farming, 115 cm/annum irrigation is best that must scheduled in 14 to 20 watering/irrigations. In summer, watering must given at an interval of 6-10 days, whereas in winter, it should be given at 3-4 weeks. Hence, during the crucial time of April to August, at least 8 irrigations needed.
September-October month is the best time for the Harvesting of Apples season. Appletree starts taking effect from 8th year onwards. And the productivity of apples increases from 8th to 17th year and after that, the product remains stable for 30 years. The life of an apple tree extends up to 40 years, but it depends on the area’s climate condition. Farmers harvest apple fruits before they are fully ripe.
Post Harvest Management
Post-harvest of apple farming includes many management activities which mentioned in the below section:-
Pre-cooling of Apples – After harvesting, farmers placed apples in a ventilated cool area to eliminate field heat before packing. Farmers have to ensure that the apple surface should be free from moisture before grading, wrapping, and packing in cartons.
Grading Apples – Apple grading depends upon apple fruit’s size, appearance, and quality. These grades are A, B, C, A, AA, AAA or Fancy Class I and Fancy Class II, Extra Fancy.
Apple Storage – Apple fruit has a longer shelf life than other fruits so farmers can store it for 4 to 8 months after harvesting. Cold storage is the best place for storing apple fruits at a temperature of about 1.10 to 00 C and 85-90% relative humidity.
Apple Packing – Wooden boxes are the best way to pack apples as they can carry about 10 kg or 20 kg of fruits.
Apple Transportation & Marketing – For apple transportation, trucks are the best choice. Trucks transport apples to the local market and from market to local commission agents.
Commercial Varieties Cultivated of Apple farming
Let’s check out Commercial varieties of Apple farming with their category in the below section:
- Clonal rootstocks include M 7, M 9, M 26, MM 11, MM 106
- Scab-resistant include Liberty, Florina, Prima, Priscilla, Nova Easy Grow, Sir Prize, Jonafree, Coop 12, Mac free, Coop 13 (Redfree), Firdous, Nova Mac, Freedom, Shireen.
- Hybrids contain Chaubattia Anupam (Early Shanburry x Red Delicious), Lal Ambri (Red Delicious x Ambri), Ambred (Red Delicious x Ambri), Chaubattia Princess, Sunehari (Ambri x Golden Delicious), Ambrich (Richared x Ambri), Ambroyal (Starking Delicious x Ambri).
- Low Chilling includes Schlomit, Tropical Beauty, Neomi, Michal, Tamma, Anna, Vered, Parlin’s Beauty.
- Pollinizing contains Mc Intosh, Winter Banana, Tydeman’s Early, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Starkspur Golden, Red Gold, Lord Lambourne, Golden Spur.
Ques. What is the right time for Apple Plantation?
Ans. Apple planting is usually done in January and February months.
Ques. Which is the best apple fruit season?
Ans. September to October is the best apple fruit season.
Que. Which state is the largest producer of apples in India?
Ans. Jammu & Kashmir is the largest producer Indian state.
Que. What should be the ph level of soil for apple farming?
Ans. The pH level of soil must be 5.5 to 6.5 for apple farming.
Ques. What dish can be made from apples?
Ans. Crumbles, Juice, and Pie are famous dishes made from apples.
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