HomeAgricultureWheat Farming in India – Steps, Cost & Profit Explained

Wheat Farming in India – Steps, Cost & Profit Explained

Wheat Farming in India - Steps, Cost & Profit Explained

Food requirements are on a constant rise as the population is increasing. And wheat is an important food crop that the world’s population prefers as a part of their traditional cuisines. Wheat production in India is highest after China. In addition, the country’s popular states like Punjab, Haryana, U.P, and Madhya Pradesh lead wheat crop production.

Scientific Name & Origin of Wheat!

Wheat is also known as Triticum aestivum and is from the family Poaceae and the genus Triticum L. This cereal crop is a wholesome food that possesses many nutritive properties. Moreover, it is a very important cereal crop that is high in dietary fibre and has high qualities of protein than other cereal grains like rice and maize.

It’s one of the best and most important food crops utilised to create food items like — biscuits, bread, cookies, cereals, noodles, and pasta. Here are other prime health benefits growing types of wheat in India helps achieve.

Benefits of Wheat Farming

Farmers can earn a great yield from this white crop as it possesses a variety of nutritional and health benefits as follows:

  • Wheat is rich in dietary fibre. Hence, Indian families prefer it to make chapatis feel fuller and satiated.
  • Wheat is quite rich in protein and fulfils one’s daily protein intake requirements.
  • Wheat is also very rich in magnesium, which is available in its unrefined state.

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Types of Wheat in India

Across parts of India, wheat is classified in different forms as follows:

Wheat Types Health Benefits
Khapli Wheat
  • Prevents cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.
  • Lowers the lipid and glucose levels in the blood.
  • Rich in dietary fibres, which helps you keep fuller.
Sharbati Wheat
  • Highly rich in protein.
  • Heavier grains with a more nutty flavour, resulting in more tasty & soft chapati.
Common Bread Wheat
  • It is highly protein-rich and highly preferred for making fluffy flatbreads.
Durum Wheat
  • It has rich gluten content and a nutritional profile similar to bread wheat.
​Whole-wheat & stone-grind – Stone vs steel Milling
  • Contains many nutrients and many other vitamins.
  • Contains plenty of dietary fibres, vitamins and minerals. 

Technical Factors to Grow Quality Wheat Crops

How to Sow, Grow & Harvest High-Yielding Wheat Crops?

1. Soil requirements

Wheat is compatible with growing on a variety of soils. Clay loam or loam texture with a good soil profile and moderate water-holding capacity is most suited for growing wheat.

However, extremely porous and drained oils should be avoided at all costs. Additionally, they should be neutral in nature as it this cash crop cannot survive in highly acidic soils. 

2. Suitable Wheat Variety

Wheat is available in various varieties across the world. It’s important to pick the right variety that matches the climatic and soil conditions of your region or zone. Moreover, you prefer to take the help of agri experts who can help you pick the ideal wheat variety from the following options:

Popular Varieties of Wheat Grown in India

3. Climatic conditions

The ideal temperature for wheat cultivation is between 20 degrees C to 25 degree Celsius. Experts say that the crop can also germinate in temperatures ranging between 3.5C to 35C.

Wheat is compatible with growing in tropical and subtropical regions. In addition, these cash crops are also suitable to grow in cold tracts beyond 60 degrees north altitude and temperate zones.

Which temperature is not suitable for growing wheat crops?

Areas with warm and damp climatic conditions should be avoided at all costs to grow wheat crops. Also, it is very important to ensure that the temperature shouldn’t be excessively low or high when the crop is in its flowering and heading stage. Also, the wheat cannot tolerate drought conditions.

4. Land preparation

For forming a well-pulverised seed bed, it’s important to perform deep ploughing, followed by 

Two to three harrowing (having disc or tines). Furthermore, giving two to three planking will also help prepare the field for effective sowing.

To prevent the infestation of white ants, mixing Aldrin 5 % dust @25 kg per hectare during ploughing can help. Moreover, to achieve effective germination, adding 35-40 kg of urea per hectare of land is a must.

5. Seed rate & treatment

You must ensure the following seed rate depending on the seed type and condition:

Seed Type Seed Rate
Normal Seed  100kg/ha
Grain coarse in size  120kg/ha
Late sowing crops 125 kg/ha

Soil Treatment

To treat the seeds, the following combination must be added during the phase of ploughing:

  • 25 kg Azatobacter
  • 2.5 kg Phosphetica Culture
  • 2.5 kg tyoderma powder mixed with 100-125 kg Farmyard Manure.

6. Sowing timeline

November to December are the ideal months for sowing wheat crops. However, each region has their different sowing timelines for this mighty cash crop. Additionally, irrespective of the sowing timeline, you must soak the seeds overnight for better germination.

Moreover, ensure a high seed rate with shallow sowing depth up to 2 to 3 cm deep in the soil. Once done with the sowing, ensure covering the seed with well-rotten farm yard manure.

What are the wheat farming methods?

There are 4 popular wheat farming methods:

  • Broadcasting
  • Behind the local plough
  • Drilling 
  • Dibbling

In addition to this, a new zero tillage technique is a new method for wheat cultivation. This newly introduced method is commonly used during the intercropping system.

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7. Plant spacing

Maintaining proper plant spacing is very important to cultivate good-quality crops.

  • The plant-to-plant spacing should be between 23-24 cm for an early variety.
  • However, you must maintain plant spacing between 15 to 18 cm for late-sowing crops.

8. Irrigation schedule

Following irrigation schedule should be followed to keep the crop well irrigated for a better harvest.

Irrigation Cycle Irrigation Timeline
1st Irrigation  After sowing, within 3-4 weeks
2nd irrigation After 40-45 days of sowing
3rd irrigation  After 60-65 days of sowing
4th irrigation After 80-85 days of sowing
5th irrigation After 100 to 105 days of sowing
6th irrigation After 105 to 120 days of sowing

9. Harvesting of wheat

This profitable cash crop is ready to harvest when the straw appears as brittle, dry, and hard in structure. Moreover, the harvesting timeline can vary in different zones. Wheat is suitable for growing once per year. The plantation in most parts is carried between October & November. And the final harvests begin from March month onwards.

Experts suggest that rainfed wheat crops compared to irrigated wheat crops, gain maturity faster and become ready to harvest.

Moreover, for storage, it’s important to remove all the moisture content of the wheat crops. Moreover, to avoid the buildup of pests, fumigating and removing moisture from the storage bins or godowns is very important.

How to increase wheat crop yield?

Note that the yield varies depending on the wheat varieties and farming methods you are implementing. In addition, adding gypsum and nitrogen in moderate quantities can help attain more yield. Also, sowing wheat seeds on time is important to achieve a high yield.

Wheat Cultivation - Cost & Profit Analysis (From 1 Acre of Land)

Profit from Wheat Cultivation – How much can you earn?

  • We assume that the minimum support price for wheat = Rs. 1840
  • Total output from 1 acre of land = 15 Quintals
  • Total Earning from 1 acre = Rs. 1840 X 15 = Rs. 27, 750

Total Earnings – Net Cost = Net profit

Rs.27,750 – Rs. 12.210 = Rs. 15,540 

Hence, the total profit you can earn from an acre of land is about Rs. 15,540, as against the invested sum of Rs.12,210 (within 3-4 months).

Leading Wheat Producing States in India

India’s Export Destinations for Wheat Crops

India exports mainly to the following countries worldwide:

  • Bangladesh
  • Sri Lanka
  • United Arab EMTs
  • Yemen Republic
  • Philippines 
  • Indonesia

Fun Fact!

Do you know the country exported 7,239,366.80 metric tons of wheat to the world during 2021-22? Also, the total produced output was worth Rs. 15,840.31 crores/ 2,121.72 USD Millions.

Here are a few farming tractor options best suited for wheat cultivation in India. 

Top 3 Tractors Suitable for Wheat Farming in India

1. Swaraj 744 FE

  • Powerful engine capacity of 3136 cc.
  • Smooth 8 forward and 2 reverse gearboxes.
  • Optional Dry Disc / Oil Immersed Brakes.

2. Mahindra 575 DI XP Plus

  • The powerful engine of 2979 CC with 4 Cylinders @2000 RPM.
  • The long wheelbase of 1960 MM.
  • Outstanding 6 years warranty.

3. New Holland 3630 TX Plus

  • Powerful three cylinders engine outputting 55 hp @1500 RPM.
  • Advanced water-cooling technology for supporting long operations.
  • Powerful 50.7 PTO Hp for complimenting a range of farming implements.

How to Control Pests & Diseases in Wheat Crops?

Wheat crops are prone to various pests and diseases like aphids and termites. Additionally, wheat crops are also vulnerable to infestation of diseases such as:

  • Brown rust
  • Powdery mildew
  • Flag smut

Add good quality organic pesticides or insecticides to prevent or eliminate the infestation of the above pests and diseases. Moreover, you can also contact the nearby local agriculture extension office for help. You can also consult with the local agriculture extension office or an expert who can help deal with it better.

Final Thoughts on Wheat Cultivation!

These were the tips important to sow, grow, and harvest high-quality wheat crops in India. A variety of wheat crops are available in India that must be picked after carefully analyzing the climate and soil conditions in one’s region.

In India, U.P, Punjab, and Haryana are the biggest contributors to the farming process of wheat in India. By following the above tips for required agri-resources, farmers can earn a good yield and earn a profit of up to Rs.12,210 (within 3-4 months) from an acre of land. We hope this wheat farming guide was helpful in inspiring you and starting production at your farm field.

Moreover, to ensure your quality yield, investing in high-grade farming tractors is a sure thing. Explore the choices with our easy-to-use Tractor comparison tool!

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Which states are the leaders of wheat cultivation in India?

Ans. Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Punjab lead the wheat crop cultivation in India.

2. What is the volume of wheat cultivation in the world?

Ans. Annually, the total output of wheat production is 749,467,531 tonnes.

3. What is vertical wheat farming?

Ans. Vertical farming is the process of crops in vertically stacked layers. This method differs from traditional techniques and helps optimize plant growth.

4. What is wheat farming history?

Ans.  As per Archaeological analysis,  wheat was first cultivated in the southern Levant around 9600 BC. But according to Genetic analysis, this crop was first cultivated in Karacadaǧ Mountains in southeastern Turkey.

5. How much is the yield from organic wheat farming in India?

Ans. Organic wheat yield from an acre of land is 9.18 quintals. Whereas the yield from conventional wheat is up to 16.74 quintals/ acre.

6. Which chemical-free fertiliser is well suited for wheat organic farming?

Ans. Chicken manure rich in phosphorus content is a suitable chemical-free fertiliser for wheat organic farming.

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