Terrace farming is the only practical solution for hilly agricultural land. And it has various advantages of it. By this farming, soil erosion is stop and helps to conserve soil. According to this farming, the methods assure to growing versatile crops. This farming goes far beyond cultivating otherwise unsuitable lands for agriculture. The farming is mainly practised in hilly areas. For practice terrace farming there are many new technologies and emerging trends of agriculture available, you can choose them for easy and highly productive farming.
This farming was invented by the Inca people who lived in the South American mountains. This farming method has made cultivating crops in hilly or mountainous regions possible. It is one of the best agricultural ideas which helps to earn good productivity.
In this blog you can get complete information about terrace farming in India. So, stay with this blog till the end!
What Is Terrace Farming?
Terrace farming is a type of agriculture that rearranges farmlands to convert for growing crops. The method of growing crops on mountains and hills is known as terrace farming. A part terrace is a plane slop cut into a series of flat surfaces for effective farming. Platforms are known as terraces. The amazing thing about this farming is water never stop if the upper one is full, automatically it goes on the lower one. Moreover, it can be profitable farming in India.
In farmed areas, agricultural terracing is either level or tilted. They depend on the soil infiltration properties. Soil infiltration is enough for levelling.
- Broad-Base Terrace Farming:- This farming method is suitable for the gentlest hills, and terrace farming includes all the slopes.
- Grassed Back-Slope Terrace Farming:- This type of farming is perennial terracing, as the back slope cover is perennial grass.
- Narrow-Base Terrace Farming:- Another example of perennial terracing, but permanent crops cover both the back and front sides in this farming.
Terrace Cultivation Systems
Following are the common systems of terrace cultivation, which can be on a large basis or as Subsistence Farming. It can present what will be the future of Indian agriculture.
1. Bench Terracing
In farming, the bench system resembles benches or stairs across a slope with platforms having flat or nearly flat forms arranged at regular intervals. This system of agriculture is commonly used for growing rice.
2. Contour Terracing
In this system, the terrace includes grassed waterways and point rows. This kind of system requires less input to arrange them, but they are quite tricky for farming because of space irregularities.
3. Parallel Terracing
The construction of a Parallel system is the easy way for farming tasks, and that’s why keep it as parallel as possible. However, they are made through land levelling if the slope does not allow that. Therefore, this farming highly requires different implements.
So, these are the emerging trends in terrace farming or types of farming so that farmers can get high yield.
Terrace Farming Benefits
The credit is given to ancient Incas for this technique, who introduced this Terrace farming system. Mountainous rice paddies are typical in Asia. Why is terrace farming essential in hilly areas? There are many benefits of terracing farming, which is valuable for the environment and humans.
- Sloped fields extend farmability and land productivity.
- It helps in water conservation, slows down and reduces water runoffs, improves rainwater collection.
- Decreasing rill formations and Adding to ecosystem diversity.
- Decreases water pollution and sedimentation. Water stays enough to settle the heavy particles and stop downstream sedimentation and water bodies’ pollution. But it remains short enough so it can’t harm crops.
- Improving hilly land for farming helps to increase food.
What Is Terrace Cultivation Purpose?
Techniques are allowed farmers to prevent water from the steepness of the hill. The reason for this farming is to obstruct water in a designated way and remove it via built erosion-resistant ditches or subsurface pipe outlets. The importance of the farming proves the efficiency of terracing to stop erosion and contribute to soil preservation.
Advantages of Terrace Farming
- The main advantage of terrace farming is making us eligible to do farming in the hilly region, which is not easy.
- It helps to reduce soil erosion and water loss from your farm.
- This farming avoids the fertile soil by rainwater because it washes away nutrients. That produces maximum production.
- By farming, you can transform your land into productive and fertile land. Example of terrace cultivation in India is Rice, Maize and many more crops.
- There is a minimum change of productive farming in hilly areas due to less water availability. But because of this method, farmers use rainwater for cultivation and do commercial farming.
In Which State Terrace Farming Is Practice?
The terrace farming method is common in hilly areas and states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Meghalaya and Plains of Uttar Pradesh. In Northside (Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh), this farming is easily seen on roadside valleys. Some areas that are not cultivate by this terrace farming are Haryana, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.
Terrace Farming Crops Grown
Terrace farming is a variety of species that depends on productivity in mountain land. Mainly medicinal, grains, legumes, and culinary herbs, nuts, fruits, vegetables, berries etc., are examples of common crops grown by terrace farming. Along with this, Apples, Rice, Saffron, Millets, Corn, Wheat and many more.
Apart from this, you can do farming on your home’s terrace. Want to know how? Let’s have a look in the section below.
How To Start Your Terrace Farming
Following are essential steps to describe how to start your terrace farming on a small scale. You can also practice it as organic farming for natural productivity. Let’s have a look.
1. Preparing the roof: Make your terrace damage accessible, leak-free, and waterproof.
2. Starting gardening: Starting with simple steps like getting pots and recycling containers and making a hole in the centre for drainage water, but no soil is discharged. On a small scale, especially for the livelihood of families, terrace farming can be perform as subsistence farming in India.
3. Choosing the plants: Then select those plants which grow quickly without troubling. Along with this, you can grow fruits and vegetables. Cover the terrace with bamboo if you think the sun is too bright on your terrace.
4. Setup Costing: Overall setup of garden needs approx. Rs. 20,000. And if you want a more designed terrace, the cost will increase. However, you can bring in diversity by trying different pots, plant holders, plants, and other decorations.
Above mentioned details about Terrace Farming and its advantages and types are informative for you.