Cotton is a Kharif crop, used in making clothes and in the textile industry. This Kharif crop requires 6-8 months to mature. The harvesting and sowing time of crops differ in different regions, depending upon the climate conditions. It’s sown in April-may and harvested in December-January before the winter frost can damage the crop. For planting, it requires high-temperature soil. The history of cotton dates back to 5000 BC. Around 5000 BC the cotton fibers and boll fragments were found in Mexico. Cotton has been used in India and Egypt for 5000 years.
Types of Cotton in India
There are three types of cotton available. Based on the strength, length, and structure of its fiber.
As per the name, it is the longest fiber, length varies from 24 to 27 mm. This fiber is long, shining, and fine. This fiber helps to make superior and fine quality cloth. Long-staple cotton is the most used cotton in India that comes at a low Kapas price. Long-staple cotton is widely produced in India, about half of the total cotton production. The major producing states of long-staple cotton are Punjab, Maharashtra, MP, Tamilnadu, Haryana, AP, and Gujarat.
Medium Staple Cotton
In Medium staple cotton, the fiber length is between 20 mm to 24 mm. Almost 44% of total Kapas production is a medium staple. Major states are Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra. A medium staple is the second most used fiber in India, it provides good quality clothes. It’s available at an economical price.
Short Staple Cotton
A short staple is the shortest fiber and inferior cotton. The length of short-staple cotton is less than 20 mm. It manufactured inferior cloth at a low price. Short staple cotton produces about 6% of total production. The main producers of short-staple cotton are AP, UP, Haryana, Punjab, and Haryana.
Cotton Production Process in India
Here, we are showing cotton processing steps.
The first step of cotton production is to prepare the land for planting by creating furrows in the soil. The cotton planting season is early February and late June. With the help of direct water irrigation and furrows, the soil warms faster. When the soil temperature reaches 65 degrees, the soil is ready for planting. Farmers will plant the seed in the soil.
This process is an important and difficult step for cotton farming. But with the proper precaution and advanced farm machine, it becomes easier. For planting and soil preparation farmers should use heavy farm machines like a harrow, cultivator, land leveler, etc., with tractors. Soil preparation improves the quality of soil for good production.
In the next step, we see the growth of plants. After 1-2 weeks of planting the seed sprouts up from the soil. After 8-10 weeks, the plant blooms and grows 2-5 feet tall. The flower pollinates itself and changes from a creamy white color to pinkish-red within three days. After this process the flower withers and falls off, leaving behind the developing boll. At about 10 weeks the cotton boll develops.
In the third step, the cotton bolls open so that the dry white bolls can evaporate, can clean the fiber, and fluff it up. With this process, the cotton crops are ready to be harvested. The cotton bolls open after the 50-70 days of bloom.
This step needs the farm machine which removes the fiber from the plant. The cotton picker or cotton harvesting farm machine used to harvest the cotton, the process called picking. The machine can harvest up to 6-8 rows at a time. The cotton harvesting season is early July or late October.
In the step, the picker’s cotton dumped on the ground and compressed with a hydraulic module builder to make a module. The modules are left in the field for storage.
In this process, the modules transported to the cotton gain, where the cotton dried, cleaned, and the fiber mechanically separated from the cotton. The gin is a machine made with circular saws which separate the raw fiber through ribs. The ribs are used to avoid the seed from passing. The machine carefully separates the fiber from cottonseed.
After the separation of cottonseed, it is suitable for making cotton oil, cotton meal, hulls, and other important things.
In this process, the raw fiber, called lint, is pressed into bales. Cotton fiber makes clothes, textiles, and many more. The bales are packed with eight steel straps, tested by experts, wrapped with full protection, and exported to the yards, mills, and other countries.
Benefits of Cotton Production
- Cotton is much beneficial for cloths, bedsheets, curtains, and jackets.
- The seed oil of cotton is good for food and cosmetics.
- It is profitable for coffee filters, oil, plastics, and rubber.
Which is the Largest Cotton Producing State in India?
The leading cotton producer in India is Gujarat. It produces 95 Lakh bales of cotton in India and covers 26.59 lakh hectares. Due to annual rainfall and black soil, This state is a profitable region for cotton production in India 2019-20. The popular cotton production regions are Vadodara, Mehsana, Bharuch, Surendranagar, and Ahmedabad. Gujarat is a central state for the textile industry due to the huge production of cotton.
Maharashtra is the largest producer of cotton in India and produced 82 lakh bales of cotton in India. The cotton production covers 42.54 lakh hectares in Maharashtra. The largest cotton-producing regions of Maharashtra are Yavatamal, Vidarbha, Khandesh, Marathwada, Akola, Wardha, and Amravati.
Telangana produces about 53 lakh bales of cotton and covers 18.27 lakh hectares in India. Guntur, Anantapur, Prakasam, and Kurnool are the major cotton-producing regions in the state.
Rajasthan produces 25 lakh bales of cotton in India and covers 6.29 lakh hectares area of India. The regions are Bhilwara, Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Jhalawar, Pali and Hanumangarh.
Haryana produces 22 lakh bales of cotton and stands in the 5th position. The cotton plantation covers 7.08 lakh hectares area in Haryana. The major regions are Fatehabad, Sirsa, Hisar, Bhiwani, Jhajjar, Charkhi Dadri, Faridabad, Mewat, Palwal, Panipat, Karnal, Gurugram, Rohtak, Jind, and Kaithal.
Madhya Pradesh produces 20 lakh bales every year. 5.79 lakh hectares covered by cotton production in MP. Cotton production regions are Bhopal, Dewas, Ratlam, Nimar, and Shajapur.
With 18 lakh bales of cotton in India, Karnataka stands at 7th position of the largest cotton-producing state in India. Cotton covers 6.88 lakh hectares area of Karnataka state. Kapas grew in the North Karnataka Plateau due to ideal conditions for cotton production. Major reasons are Dharwad, Gulbarga, Dharwad, Bellary, and Belgaum.
Punjab produces 13 lakh bales per year in India and covers 2.68 lakh hectares area. The major regions are Ludhiyana, Moga, Bhatinda, Faridkot, Sangrur, and Mansa.
Tamilnadu state contributes 6 lakh bales of cotton and covers 1.31 lakh hectares of land in the state. Vellalore, Ramanathapuram, Coimbatore, Salem and Madurai, Tiruchirapalli are cotton-producing districts in TamilNadu.
Orissa produces 4 lakh cotton per year for India and 1.58 lakh hectares area. Subarnapur is the main cotton production state of Orissa.
|States||Production (2019-20)||Area (Hectares)||Yield (Kg/Hectares)|
|Gujarat||95 Lakh||26.59 lakh||556.22|
|Maharashtra||82 Lakh||42.54 lakh||307.71|
|Telangana||53 Lakh||18.27 lakh||437.33|
|Rajasthan||25 Lakh||6.29 lakh||675.68|
|Haryana||22 Lakh||7.08 lakh||552.26|
|Madhya Pradesh||20 Lakh||5.79 lakh||664.50|
|Karnataka||18 Lakh||6.88 lakh||370.64|
|Punjab||13 Lakh||2.68 lakh||729.48|
|Tamilnadu||6 Lakh||1.31 lakh||778.63|
|Odisha||4 Lakh||1.58 lakh||
Which Are The Largest Countries of Cotton Production in the World?
India is the top agricultural country that produces the largest cotton crop producing country in the world. Here, we are showing the largest Kapas production countries in the World with ranking and production (1000 480 lb. Bales). With 28500 (1000 480 lb. Bales) India is the largest cotton producing country in India. India covers 125.84 lakh hectare area for cotton production.
Following are the leading cotton producers in the world.
- India – 28,500
- China – 26,500
- United States – 19,500
- Brazil – 12,000
- Pakistan – 6,300
- Turkey – 3,300
- Uzbekistan – 3,250
- Australia – 1,700
- Greece – 1,640
- Benin – 1450
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