Sugarcane production in India is a very popular agricultural state, and plus 65% of the population indulge in agriculture. Almost every kind of crop is grown in India. Sugarcane is one of the most popular crops in India. Sugarcane refers to several species and hybrids of tall perennial grasses in the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, used for sugar production. The plants are 2–6 m tall with stout, jointed, fibrous stalks rich in sucrose, which accumulate in the stalk internodes.
Sugarcane was initially cultivated in “New Guinea” around 800 BC. The country Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world. Excessive production of sugarcane in India results in India being the 2nd largest sugarcane producing country in the world. Sugarcane used for making sugar, gur and khandsari, which consumed widely across the nation. Except for Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, and northeastern states, every state produces sugarcane in India in some quantity. In this article, we will discuss aspects related to sugarcane production in India, compare top sugarcane producing states in India, and analyse the export scenario of sugarcane.
HISTORY OF SUGARCANE PRODUCTION IN INDIA
Sugarcane was an ancient crop of the Austronesian and Papuan people. It introduced to Polynesia, Island Melanesia, and Madagascar in prehistoric times via Austronesian sailors. It introduced to southern China and India by Austronesian traders around 1200 to 1000 BC. The Persians and Greeks encountered the famous “reeds that produce honey without bees” in India between the sixth and fourth centuries BC. They adopted and spread sugarcane agriculture. Merchants began to trade in sugar, which considered a luxurious and expensive spice, from India. In the 18th century, sugarcane production in the world started in the Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean, and Pacific island nations.
Labourers became a significant driver of large migrations; some people voluntarily accepted indentured servitude, and others were forcibly imported as slaves. Brazil is the largest sugarcane producing country.
Temperature for different stages of sugarcane:- The necessary steps are germination, tillering, early growth, active growth and elongation. The optimum temperature for sprouting (germination) of stem cuttings is 32° to 38°c. It slows down below 25°, reaching a plateau 30°-34°. Temperatures of more 38° reduce the rate of photosynthesis and increase respiration. For ripening, relatively low temperatures of 12° to 14° are desirable. It is a suitable crop as per the climate requirements in India.
Sugarcane Cultivation Regions in India
Areas for Sugarcane production regions in India are as follows.
- North Western Zone
- The North Central Zone
- North Eastern Zone
- Peninsular Zone
- Coastal Zone
Tropical districts Shared around 45% and 55% of the whole sugarcane region and creation in the country, separately alongside the average efficiency of 77 th (2011-12). Subtropical districts represented around 55% and 45% of regions and the creation of sugarcane with average usefulness around 63th (2011-12).
SUGARCANE INDUSTRY ROLE IN INDIAN ECONOMY
Sugarcane production plays a significant role in the Indian economy. It provides the raw material for sugar and industries producing alcohol, paper, chemicals and cattle feed. The sugarcane production in India has a processing network consisting of 762 installed sugar mills, has several associated industries and backward and forward linkages. To the multi-purpose uses of sugarcane in India and its byproducts in various sectors, the demand for increased sugarcane production in India is increasing.
With an area of 5 million hectares, sugarcane production in India carried out on about 2.57 per cent of the total cropped area. It provides employment to around 60 lakh sugarcane growers and indirect employment to many people in the association.
TOP 10 SUGARCANE PRODUCING STATES IN INDIA
1. Uttar Pradesh
The question arises of which state is the largest producer of sugarcane, the answer is Uttar Pradesh. It is the largest sugarcane producing state in India. Uttar Pradesh is an important name in the production of various crops, including sugarcane production. Up’s districts known for sugarcane production are Meerut, Bareilly, Saharanpur, and Bulandshahr. The annual output for the sugarcane production of Uttar Pradesh is 133.3 million tonnes which is the highest sugarcane production in India. Around 2.5 crore people of UP indulge in the sugarcane industry.
Maharashtra ranks 2nd in the top sugarcane producing states in India.9 lakh hectares of land is used to produce 75.3 MT of sugarcane in Maharashtra. The climatic condition of Maharashtra is suitable for the cultivation of sugarcane. Districts producing sugarcane in Maharashtra are Pune, Satara, Solapur, and Maharashtra.
3. Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is on the third position in the list of largest producers of sugarcane in India. The state produced 37.5 MT of sugarcane crop the previous year. The state maintained the top record of producing 107 tonnes per hectare of sugarcane annually.
Karnataka’s climatic conditions are suitable for sugarcane production. Karnataka maintained the 4th position in the list of top sugarcane producing states of India.The previous record of previous year recorded sugarcane production of 34.6 million tonnes. Karnataka gained massive popularity for producing top-quality sugarcane in India. To the excellent climate suitable for sugarcane production, low humidity, sunny in the day and cold at night.
5. Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh received the 5th position in India’s list of top states based on sugarcane production in India. The soil is perfect for sugarcane production. Andhra Pradesh’s growth in sugarcane production is massive in the previous years. The total output of the crop recorded to 14.9 MT in the previous year, which is far more from the previous few years from the previous one.
Bihar is on the sixth position in the list of the largest producers of sugarcane in India. The total produce of 12.2 MT recorded in India In sugarcane production previous year. One thing which is unique in Bihar is that it is not only famous for sugarcane, it renowned for jaggery.
Gujarat is known for plentiful industrial activities in India. It is one of the major sugarcane producing states in India. The state is quite known for sugarcane production. The output of the crop recorded to be 9.5 MT. Resulting, Gujarat contributes to sugar production in India.
Haryana is known for its agriculture. The state is famous for producing many crops, including sugarcane. Haryana is in the eighth position in the top sugarcane producing states in India. The districts known for their production are Gurgaon, Karnal, Faridabad, Sonepat, and Rohtak. The state produces 9.3 MT in 1.3 lakh hectares of land.
Agriculture is in the blood of Punjab. Punjab’s culture is known for its agriculture. It is known for producing different crops, and sugarcane is one of them. The total sugarcane production of Punjab is 6.6 million tonnes. Punjab is in the ninth position in the top 10 sugarcane producing states of India.
Uttarakhand is on the tenth position in the list of leading sugarcane producers in India. About 6.4 million tonnes of sugarcane produced in this state—hilly areas with stable climates suit the sugarcane production. Uttarakhand is a growing sugarcane producer, and we will see immense growth in this aspect in coming years for sure.
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT SUGARCANE
We are showing insight of interesting facts about sugarcane that explains your clearly. have a look.
Benefits of Sugarcane in India
We are showing some useful benefits of Sugarcane in India. Have a look down below.
- Boost Immunity
- Helps in Improving Digestion
- Help in Reducing Fever
- Good in Pregnancy
- Useful in Diabetes
SUGARCANE’S EXPORT FROM INDIA
India is one of the largest producers of sugarcane in the world and of the leading countries for the export of sugarcane. India exported sugar to 60 countries, around 60 per cent of the total shipments were to Iran, Somalia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. The government allowed the export of 60 lakh tonnes of sugar under the Maximum Admissible Export Quota (MAEQ) in 2019-20 marketing year to liquidate surplus sugar in global markets. The country exported 38 lakh tonnes of sugar in 2018-19 marketing year.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Que. Which state is the largest producer of sugarcane in India?
Ans. Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of sugarcane in India.
Que. What is India’s rank in production of sugarcane?
Ans. India’s rank is 2nd in production of sugarcane.
Que. Where is the largest producer of sugarcane?
Ans. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane.
Que. Which state called the sugar bowl of India?
Ans. Uttar Pradesh state called the sugar bowl of India.
As per the above information, we can conclude that sugarcane production in India is very important for the economy, employment opportunities and foreign exchange. Sugarcane Production in India has an immense future globally.
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