HomeAgricultureBamboo Farming Guide: Growing and Harvesting Methods of Bamboo Plants

Bamboo Farming Guide: Growing and Harvesting Methods of Bamboo Plants

Bamboo Farming Revolution

Bamboo farming in India has garnered significant importance due to its environment-friendly features and adaptable uses. This practice not only helps preserve the environment but also stimulates economic growth. With a rapidly expanding sector that taps into India’s diverse bamboo species, bamboo farming holds immense potential to uplift rural livelihoods. Additionally, it also plays a pivotal role in carbon sequestration efforts.

As India focuses on sustainable resource management and rural empowerment, bamboo farming is pivotal in fostering economic growth and ecological harmony. Let’s help you unveil the essential agricultural factors necessary for cultivating top-quality, high-yielding bamboo. Subsequently, we will provide insights into comprehending the potential bamboo farm profit per acre.

Importance of Bamboo Farming In India

Bamboo, a type of grass, stays green throughout the year and can grow almost 90 cm in a single day. Remarkably, it is mainly cultivated in the northeastern states of India.

  • Surprisingly, there are more than 1400 different kinds of bamboo worldwide.
  • What’s truly remarkable about bamboo is that it doesn’t just grow fast; it also plays a vital role in saving forests.
  • Additionally, bamboo significantly boosts oxygen production by 35% and helps reduce excess carbon dioxide in the air.
  • Moreover, bamboo farming annually contributes about 9,000 crore rupees to the country’s economy. It’s worth noting that India’s demand for bamboo, currently around 26 million metric tonnes, is expected to increase further.
  • To promote bamboo tree farming, the Indian government initiated the ‘National Bamboo Mission’ under the Ministry of Agriculture.

Also Read Top 10 Agriculture Business Ideas – Most Profitable Farming in India!

Usage of Bamboo

Highest Selling Bamboo Varieties in India

India has rich bamboo production due to supporting weather, labour, and other agri-resources. Here are a few of the best varieties of bamboo that are highly sold in India.

  1. Beema Bamboo: This variety is an excellent clone chosen from Bambusa balcooa.
  2. Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii: With woody stems hanging down, this bamboo can reach heights of 12 to 25 meters.
  3. Melocanna Bacciferra: Belonging to the Melocanna genus, this bamboo species can attain heights ranging from 10 to 25 meters.
  4. Tulda bamboo: Highly useful and originating from India, Indochina, Tibet, and Yunnan.
  5. Gracilis: Notably, Gracilis is the top-selling bamboo variety, renowned for its impressive height of up to 30 feet.

Here are some other commercially selling bamboo varieties in India:

Major Bamboo Varieties

Technical Factors Required for Bamboo Farming

Let’s look at the conditions needed for bamboo farming in India, such as the right climate, soil, land preparation, and fertilisers.

Technical Factors to Sow, Grow, & Harvest Bamboo Plants in India

Soil Requirements
  • Well-Drained Sandy-Loam And Clay-Loam
  • Slightly Acidic Ph Soil
Climatic Conditions 65 To 90 Degrees Fahrenheit
Irrigation Methods
  • Drip Irrigation
  • Flood Irrigation
  • Rainwater Irrigation
Fertiliser Requirements Nitrogen

Soil Requirement for Bamboo Farming

Bamboo plants thrive when the pH of the soil falls within the range of 4.5 to 6.0. Moreover, it can grow well in various soil types, with the exception of rocky terrain. Specifically, the most suitable soils for successful bamboo farming include well-draining, sandy-loam, and clay-loam soils.

Climate Conditions for Bamboo Farming

Bamboo farming is ideal in warm and humid places and can’t handle cold weather. If the temperature goes below 15 degrees Celsius in the summer, it can harm or even kill the plant. India’s wet and tropical climate is perfect for growing bamboo.

Furthermore, Many types of bamboo can endure flooding and stay in waterlogged conditions for a long time. This makes them very useful in areas that have been affected by floods.

Propagation Method in Bamboo Plant Farming

Bamboos employs a dual growth approach: firstly, they utilize seeds to cultivate new plants, which is recognized as the reproductive method; secondly, they harness components such as rhizomes, culms, and branches to nurture fresh bamboo, a process distinguished as the vegetative method.

Bamboo Irrigation Methods

Bamboo Farming: Irrigation Requirement

While bamboo can thrive in regular dry areas, it has a strong affinity for water. Bamboo growers employ different techniques to water their plantations, with the most effective methods being:

Drip Irrigation: Farmers prefer drip irrigation as the most efficient method for hydrating bamboo plants, especially in extensive bamboo plantations covering hundreds of hectares.

Flood Irrigation: For smaller plantations, flood irrigation is chosen due to its cost-effective setup that doesn’t require extensive infrastructure.

Natural/Rainwater Irrigation: In damp regions like northeast India, bamboo plants rely entirely on rainwater and the moisture of the forest soil to flourish.

Bamboo Growing Methods

Globally, bamboo is predominantly cultivated using methods that involve parts of existing plants rather than seeds. Nonetheless, the cultivation of bamboo from culms (stem segments) and rhizomes (underground stems) is also a viable option.

However, when it comes to growing bamboo from seeds, it’s theoretically possible but rather uncommon. This rarity is attributed to the scarcity of bamboo seeds, which is primarily because bamboo plants only produce seeds once in their lifetime, during a rare and infrequent flowering event.

Intercultural Operations for Bamboo Farming

After removing the weeds from the farm, get rid of them properly. Keep a clear zone of 60 cm around the bamboo plants to stop weeds from returning. To help bamboo grow better, use mulch. Mulching is especially useful in places with little rain or during dry times, as it stops the soil from losing water.

Bamboo Farming Fertilizer Requirements

Bamboo plants have a big appetite for Nitrogen, which helps them grow quickly. Farmers usually use Urea or Coated Urea in soils that lack enough Nitrogen to satisfy their hunger.

Pest and Disease Control

The key step in handling plant diseases is to check the plants regularly. If you see any sick parts, cut and remove them. Burn the collected plant pieces. Do this before the rainy season. Using special sprays can also stop diseases from spreading.

Common Diseases in bamboo are:

Bamboo blight Foliage blight
Branch die-back Leaf spot
Branch die-back broom Leaf rust
Little leaf Thread blight

Harvesting & Yield

A lengthy and sharp knife or a curved saw is employed for gathering bamboo. Each bamboo stem weighs around 15-20 kg on average. It is thought that from one acre of land containing 200 bamboo plants, about 13.5 tonnes of bamboo can be harvested during the fifth year after planting.

Post Harvest Management

Once bamboo is collected, storing and transporting it properly is essential. This ensures that a robust and high-quality bamboo stalk reaches both the market and the end user while maintaining its health.

Also Check: Crop Rotation: Nurturing Indian Fields for Sustainable Growth

Bamboo Farming Profit

Bamboo cultivation proves to be more lucrative than other crops, including edible and non-edible cash crops. It is cultivated across 10 million hectares of land in India, encompassing nearly 13 per cent of the entire forest area. The annual bamboo yield totals five million tonnes. Approximately 8.6 million individuals rely on bamboo as a means of their sustenance. The assessed value of bamboo in India stands at $4.4 billion.

What Is Bamboo Farm Profit Per Acre In India?

Quantity of bamboo per acre: 13.5 metric tonnes. The typical selling price of each bamboo culm is around Rs 100 (subject to potential variations based on quality and sales location). Hence, the overall value of 900 culms equals Rs 90,000 (during the 5th year post-planting). The return on investment in the 5th year would be (Rs 90,000 – Rs 59,280) = Rs 30,720.

What is Hydroponic Bamboo Farming?

Hydroponic bamboo farming refers to nurturing bamboo in a controlled space without using soil. Instead of the usual dirt-based approach, hydroponics relies on nutrient-packed water to feed the bamboo roots directly. This smart method has several benefits: quicker growth, efficient use of water and nutrients, and less vulnerability to soil-related diseases.

In the hydroponic bamboo system, the plant’s roots either stay underwater or get regular doses of the nutrient solution. This way, the plants can concentrate on growing big and strong rather than searching for food in the ground.

What is the National Bamboo Mission?

The National Bamboo Mission (NBM) is primarily focused on fostering the growth of the bamboo industry. It achieves this by connecting producers with consumers through a holistic approach that encompasses providing planting materials, setting up plantations, and creating facilities for bamboo collection and processing.

Additionally, the mission promotes marketing initiatives, supports micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises, enhances workforce skills, and cultivates robust brands within distinct clusters.


In conclusion, bamboo farming is promising for India’s agricultural landscape and economic growth. With its rapid growth, versatility, and sustainable characteristics, bamboo presents a unique opportunity for rural development, job creation, and environmental conservation.

The concerted efforts made by organisations like the National Bamboo Mission (NBM) to develop the entire value chain, from cultivation to market, further enhance the prospects of bamboo farming. As the nation embraces this eco-friendly resource, there is potential to transform livelihoods and contribute to a greener and more prosperous future for rural communities and the country.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Which State Is Rich In Bamboo Farming?

Mizoram holds the highest bamboo-bearing area among Indian states, followed by Arunachal Pradesh.

Q2. Which Bamboo Variety Is Most Profitable In India?

Beema Bamboo, a highly profitable variety in India, can generate a yearly income of 40,000 to 50,000 rupees per acre.

Q3. How Long Does It Take To Grow A Bamboo Tree?

Bamboo trees typically take 7 to 10 years to reach maturity, continuously producing larger canes.

Q4. Does India Import Bamboo?

Yes, India is the world’s biggest buyer of Bamboo sticks, mainly importing them from China, Vietnam, and Indonesia.

Q5. Is Bamboo A Good Business In India?

Bamboo spans 10 million hectares (13% of forests) in India, yielding five million tonnes yearly. It supports 8.6 million livelihoods and is valued at $4.4 billion.

Q6. What Is The Future Of The Bamboo Industry In India?

Higher furniture demand linked to increased per capita income is driving the surge in India’s bamboo market.

Q7. How Much Land Is Needed For Bamboo?

Farmers typically plant bamboo during the rainy season. They dig holes of size 60*60 and plant seedlings from a nursery at a distance of 54 meters.

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