India is the largest pulses producer globally, accounting for 27-28% of the world’s total production. Moreover, do you know India imports 14% of pulses globally? Also, pulses account for 7-10% of India’s total foodgrain production.
In addition to this, Pulses are well suited to grow well in both Rabi and Kharif seasons. However, Rabi crops (harvested from April to June) are widely grown, contributing to 60% of total production.
Moreover, Gram is the most dominant crop that accounts for 40% of total pulses. While:
- Tutor Arhar daal accounts for 15-20% of the total production
- Urad and Moong daal at 8-10% each in total production
Moreover, if we talk about major pulses-producing states in India, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka are the leading ones. Let’s talk about the top 10 largest pulses-producing states with a total production of pulses in India. Besides, we will list the popularly grown pulses and government-introduced initiatives that are a blessing for Indian farmers.
Top 10 Largest Producers of Pulses in India
There are various pulse-producing states in India. But here are state-wise pulses production in India from the top 10 states with annual production and pulse variety.
Rajasthan became a leading producer of pulses in India. The state’s annual production stands at 4821.84 tonnes in FY 2020-21. The state produces the highest quantity of pulses like moong, moth, moong, and gram in the rabi season and arhar in the Kharif season. This shows the state is famous for producing quite a list of pulses.
2. Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh’s annual pulse production in India stands at 4364.74 tonnes in FY 2020-21. Gram, Tur, and Urad tops the pulses list and are highly cultivated and grown in Madhya Pradesh.
Maharashtra is the third largest producer of pulses in India. The state’s annual pulses production stands at 4364.74 tonnes in FY 2020-21. Besides, Maharashtra has around 20 lakh hectares of land that cultivates tur pulse in the majority.
4. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh ranks 4th in terms of pulses production in India. And, the annual production of pulses in India from UP stands at 2621.15 tonnes in FY 2020-21. Gram pulse tops the pulse name list as it has the highest crop area for production.
Karnataka is the fifth largest producer of pulses in India. The state’s annual production stood at 2170.89 tonnes for FY 2020-21. For instance, state accounts for 60% growth of chickpea crops and pigeon peas. The state is known to grow a variety of pulses like chickpea, pigeon pea, horse gram, black gram and green gram.
6. Andra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh is India’s sixth-largest producer of pulses in India. And, the annual production of pulses in this popular state stood at 1185.43 tonnes in FY 2020-21. The state is home to producing various high-protein pulses in India.
Gujarat is the seventh largest pulses producer, with an annual production of 1759.93 tons of pulses in FY 2020-21. Gujrat, however, made an annual production of 1,057.300 tonnes in 2020. So, this shows great growth in the production of Gujrat since last year.
Jharkhand’s annual pulse production in India stands at 908.93 tonnes in FY 2020-21. However, the state’s annual production in 2020 stood at 814 thousand metric tons. So, this shows a small but valuable growth in the current financial year’s production volume across the state from the previous one.
9. Tamil Nadu
It is the largest pulses-producing state in India. Tamil Nadu’s annual production stood at 549.02 tonnes in FY 2020-21. In the last 6 years, it has developed land year under pulses between 3.97 to 7.85 lakh ha per year.
It is the 10th largest producer of pulses in India which produces 664.14 tonnes of pulses in FY 2020-21. The state produces enough pulses to enjoy a meal twice a day. Furthermore, the pulses plantation is so huge that a large population of people can get decent income opportunities.
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These were the top 10 leading pulses growing states in India. Now let’s talk about the government initiatives that support the growth in the cultivation and harvesting of high-quality and yielding pulses.
India is the grower of pulses in huge quantities. Thus, to make it ever-increasing, some government-led initiatives are highly useful.
Government Schemes to Support Growing Pules Production
To support the pulses growing states, the Government patronages various schemes that are highly beneficial for Indian farmers.
The production of pulses has grown in the last 3 years, from 2018 to 2021. Furthermore, to keep up with this growth, the government of India has initiated an NFSM-Pulses programme to support the production of different types of pulses in India. The programme is being initiated in around 644 districts across 28 States and the Union Territories of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh.
Under the NFSM-Pulses programme, the government focus on:
- Distribution of incentives to farmers.
- Distribution of high-yielding varieties of seeds (HYVs).
- And, Production of certified seeds.
- Distribution of efficient farm machinery/tools.
- Distribution of water-saving devices, plant protection chemicals, and soil ameliorants (substances that helps improve/grow the physical condition of the soil).
- Training is also given to farmers to improve crop production and yield.
- And, Central seed agencies get assistance to produce certified and latest seed varieties.
- Free of cost, mini kits of various pulses are distributed to farmers.
Production of Pulses in India for the Last 5 Years
So, let’s have a quick view of India’s last 5 years of pulses production from FY 2016 to 2021 to observe any growth curve or downfalls.
|State/UN||Production (‘000 Tonnes)|
Now we know popular pulses producing states in India and government-supported initiatives, let’s look at the list of pulses grown in India.
Variety of Pulses Cultivated, Grown & Sold in India
Here are a few protein rich pulses in India that farmers grow and commercially trade.
|Pulses Name in English||Pulses Name in Hindi|
|Gahat ki Daal-Horse Gram||कुल्थी दाल|
|Red Gram/Pigeon pea||अरहर की दाल/तुअर दाल|
|Dal Bhat||भट्ट की दाल|
|Gahat ki Daal-Horse Gram||कुल्थी दाल|
|Gram/ Bengal Gram/ Chickpeas Split||चना दाल|
|Gram / Chickpeas whole||काला चना|
|Lima Beans/Vaal Dal||सेम|
|Kidney Beans, Beans||राजमा|
|Green Peas||हरी मटर|
|Black Gram /Vigna mungo||उड़द|
|Black Gram Split||उड़द की दाल/ काली दाल|
|Urad Dal White Lentil /Urad Dal skinned||उड़द की धुली दाल|
|Black-Eyed Pea/Black eyed Beans/Alubia/Cowpea||लोबिया/ सफ़ेद राजमा|
|Black Gram /Vigna mungo||उड़द|
|Green Gram Split||मूंग हरी दाल|
|Moong yellow Dal/ Skinned Dal||मूंग पीली दाल|
|Green Gram/Whole Mung Beans/ Turkish gram||मोठ दाल/साबित मूंग|
|Red Lentil||मसूर की दाल|
This was the overall Indian pulses list, let’s review pulses that Indian states commonly grow.
Major Pulses Grown in India
Following are the following types of pulses grown in India popularly.
- Bengal Gram (Desi Chick Pea / Desi Chana)
- Pigeon Peas (Arhar / Toor / Red Gram)
- Green Beans (Moong Beans)
- Chick Peas (Kabuli Chana)
- Black Matpe (Urad / Mah / Black Gram)
- Red Kidney Beans (Rajma)
- Black Eyed Peas (Lobiya)
- Lentils (Masoor)
- White Peas (Matar) are major pulses grown and consumed in India
Easy Tips to Increase Pulses Cultivation in India
India has great potential to increase pulses production in India and limit our dependency on imports. Further here are some strategies on how India can move towards sustainable cultivation and production of different pulses in India.
1. To Increase Crop Area
The scope of increasing the area under pulses is huge. Therefore, acting on it and increasing the land area is vital to result in more pulse cultivation opportunities. That’s why, we have huge potential to grow and harvest the leading name of pulses in India.
2. Optimizing Fertilization Process
More efficient use of fertilization is needed to ensure growth. So, balanced use of fertilisers can positively affect nodulation, growth, yield and overall performance of legume crops. Phosphorus plays an important role in the growth of legumes. Hence, 30 to 80 kg of phosphorus per hectare is beneficial for sowing and growing quality crops.
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3. Development of High Yielding Variety of Seeds
As there is an unusual agro-climatic condition in India, cultivation of pulses is done on a limited scale in the country. Therefore, it is important to grow high-yielding, early maturing, disease and pest-resistant varieties of major pulse crops are quite needful.
4. Mixed Cropping
Intercropping of pulses next to other crops helps to:
- Increase land’s total production capacity
- And, Increase net income per season
- Provide insurance in case of failure of the main pulse crop
5. Distribution of Good Quality Seeds
Seed-producing agencies and agricultural universities need to work on providing good quality seeds to farmers or smallholders. And there should be a time gap in the timely distribution of seeds.
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6. Financial Help to Potential Farmers
The government needs to make arrangements to provide enough financial support to Indian farmers. So that they can show more interest in the cultivation of pulses. Besides, the government should also look into market forces to decide the price structure so farmers can collect enough profits.
7. Educating Farmers in Modern Technology
Farmers should be taught about modern farming techniques and technologies that can improve yield. Similarly, farmers should be taught crop-specific and region-specific techniques that are helpful in supporting the growth of crops.
As a result, these were the top 10 producers of pulses in India. Over the past three years, there is a significant growth in pulse production and commercialization in India. Furthermore, India supports 27-28% of the world’s demand for pulses. Furthermore, India supplements great weather and other agricultural-friendly aspects that are favourable for the growth of this foodgrain.
Rajasthan led the pulse production in the FY 2020-21 due to the state’s dependable weather conditions, flexible government-supported initiatives and great efforts and hard work done by farmers. In fact, India has tremendous potential to utilize more land for more production. Similarly our country can continue to be the world’s largest producer of pulses if the government and we together plan to increase the area of production, add more advanced seed varieties & technologies, additionally, provide easy access to the best farm mechanisation solutions.
Frequently Asked Questions
Ques. Which seasons are best suited for the production of pulses in India?
Ans. Rabi and Kharif both are best suited for growing pulses in India. However, Rabi pulses lead with 60% total production of pulses. Following Indian pulses varieties are grown in these different seasons:
Ques. Where are pulses grown in India?
Ans. Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra are India’s top pulse-producing states.
Ques. How many pulses are there in India?
Ans. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, 11 pulses differ in size, colour, and shape.
Ques. Which is the largest producer of pulses in the world?
Ans. As per 2021-22 data, Rajasthan is the leading producer of pulses in India, with an annual production of 4364.74 tonnes.
Ques. Name the pulses grown in India popularly.
Ans. Gram accounts for 40% of the total pulse production in India, followed by Tur or Arhar daal, which accounts for 15-20%. Further, Urad and Moong account for 8-10% of total pulse production, respectively.
Ques. Which different types of pulses are high selling in India?
Ans. The commonly sold pulses in India are gram, tur, urad, and moong.
Ques. Is the cultivation of pulses in India feasible?
Ans. Yes, the cultivation of pulses in India is quite feasible. Likewise, it’s because India has great agro-climatic conditions, skilled farmers, and efficient technology and farm mechanisation solutions.
Ques. Which are the top producers of Pulses in India state-wise?
Ans. The top 10 pulses-producing states in India are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Andra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana.
Ques. Pulses exported from India to which countries?
Ans. India is the second largest producer of pulses in the world. So, the state commonly exports its pulses to the United Arab Emirates, the United States, and Nepal.