HomeAgricultureMustard Farming in India: Varieties, Cultivation & Seed Rate

Mustard Farming in India: Varieties, Cultivation & Seed Rate

Mustard Farming in India: Varieties, Cultivation & Seed Rate

Mustard farming in India is the fourth-largest producer of mustard oil cultivation in the world. Also, the mustard crop contributes about 28.6% to total oilseeds production. Therefore, the mustard plant is an important oilseed crop of India. In addition, mustard seed plants are also used as green vegetables. Moreover, mustard seeds and their oil is used for culinary purposes. Most of the time, the cultivation of mustard with wheat, barley, gram, potato, etc., are called intercrop. Mustard crops belong to the family of “Cruciferae” and are commonly used in Indian cooking. 

Mustard cultivation in India is number one in the production of mustard farming. Oil and split mustard seed are used for pickling. Mustard gives edible oil, which is used in the kitchen for cooking. In addition, mustard seed germination is used as a spice to prepare vegetables and curries in India. In addition, it can be used as oil cake to feed cattle. The cost of cultivation of mustard is quite reasonable, which means you can quickly start mustard farming with less money. We are here shown a detailed blog on what is mustard plant and its cultivation procedure. 

Regional Names of Mustard Seeds in India 

  • Hindi – Rai, Banarasi rai, Kalee sarson
  • Gujarati – Rai
  • Kannada – Save
  • Kashmiri – Sarisa, Issue
  • Telugu – Avalu
  • Tamil – Kadugo
  • Malayalam – Kaduku
  • Punjabi – Rai, Banarasi rai, Kalee sarson

Mustard Producing State in India

Mostly in Rajasthan Mustard farming carried out from the ancient time. With this, Mustard crops are popular in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat too. Some southern area farmers have also grown Mustard crops in India, including Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. The Rabi crop in Assam, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal mentions it as a yellow season. With all these, it is a catch crop in Punjab, Haryana, Up and Himachal Pradesh. In short, we can say that Mustard farming is the soul of the Indian economy, and it purely contributes to the farmer’s livelihood. These are some crop producing states in India

Mustard Producing State in India

Climatic Conditions for Mustard Farming

Mustard cultivation is begun in a subtropical climate. Cultivation of mustard seed grows well in dry and cool weather. Therefore the mustard growing season is mainly known as a Rabi crop. The mustard seed tree requires temperatures between 10°C to 25°C. The mustard crop is produced in the areas receiving 625 -1000 mm annual rainfall. Mustard farm does not tolerate freeze, so it requires a clear sky with frost-free conditions.

Soil Requirement for Mustard Farming

Soil Requirement for Mustard Farming

Mustard farming can be raised in wide varieties of soils that range from light to heavy loamy soils. However, medium to deep soils with good drainage are best suitable for cultivating the mustard crop. Soil ideal pH range for mustard variety is 6.0 to 7.5. Make sure to manage a soil test to prepare the soil properties like soil type, strength and healthy levels. Sandy and loamy sand soils are suitable for Sarso farming. The spacing of mustard plant cultivation should be about 45 cm x 20 cm.

Sowing Methods of Mustard Crop Cultivation

Sowing Methods of Mustard Crop Cultivation

Mustard farming is usually planted in the Sept-Oct months. If a mustard crop is pure, it is produced by the drilling method, or if the mustard crops are mixed, seeds should be sown by broadcasting or drilling process. Mix the hybrid mustard seed with fine sand for uniform spacing. There is sufficient fog already in the soil when mustard seeds plant. For better mustard seed germination, seeds planted a maximum of 6 cm depth in the soil. Following, we showed complete details about mustard seeds growing.

  • For toria crop, farming from the first fortnight of September to October.
  • African sarson and Taramira can be sown in the whole October month.
  • For Raya crop complete sowing from Mid October to November End.

The maximum time of sowing to realize high yielding in the states included in the Mustard farming is as follows.



Seed Rate kg/ha Spacing (cm)
Haryana 5.0 30 x 10-15
Himachal Pradesh  6.0 30 x 10-15
Madhya Pradesh  5.0-6.0 45 x 15
Punjab 3.5-4.0 30-45 x 10-15
Rajasthan  4.0-5.0 30 x 10
Uttar Pradesh  5.0-6.0 45 x 10

A Seed Rate of Mustard

Thinning operations must be done three weeks after sowing and maintain only healthy seedlings.

To obtain optimum plant about mustard seeds that stand for higher yield, the recommended seed rate of mustard should be followed as per the list mentioned below.

  • A rapeseed rate of 1.5 kg seeds per acre.
  • In pure mustard crop seed, the rate could be about 4 – 6 kg per hectare.
  • In mixed crops, the seed rate could be about 2 – 3 kg per hectare.

Preparing Land for Mustard Farming in India

1 to 2 ploughings and two harrowings given as part of field preparation for mustard farming. In addition, the field prepared for second crop mustard seeds cultivation by giving 2 crosswise harrowing after the Kharif crop. Check out below for proper details about cultivation of mustard crop in India. 

  • Fine seedbeds needed for the excellent germination of crops.
  • Planking done after every ploughing.
  • Prepared firm, moist and uniform seedbed as it will help in uniform mustard seed germination.

Mustard Farming Irrigation 

Pre-sowing irrigation done before the sowing of seeds. For good growth, crops required in general about three irrigation applications at an interval of three weeks after sowing. A good amount of organic manures applied to the soil, and it will help conserve moisture in the ground.

Weed Control Information About Mustard

Weed control information about mustard

Thinning done after a 2 weeks time interval( in the case of a pure mustard crop). In the case of the mixed crop, the mustard crop received from the inter cultivation given to the main crop. The most common weeds which develop in the fields of Rapeseed and Mustard are deep-rooted broad-leaved weeds.

  • Bathua – Chenopodium album
  • Chatter mattari – Lathyms spp
  • Kateli – Cirsium arvense
  • Gajri – FumariapalVijlora

Weeds separated mainly through hand-hoeing with Khurpi. This method is advantageous since it eliminates the weeds thoroughly during the early stages of growth. Moreover, it pulverizes the soil and creates mulch over the soil, and reduces moisture loss.

Weed control in Toria crop, pre-plant incorporation of Trifluralin at 400ml/200Ltrs of water per acre. For Raya crop, give a pre-emergence spray at 400gm/200Ltr within 2 days of sowing.

Mustard Harvesting

Mustard Harvesting

Mustard harvesting carried out as soon as the pods turn yellow & the seed grows hard. The mustard crop grows in about 110 to 160 days. Harvesting done in the early morning hours to avoid any shattering of stock. 

  • Cut crops close to the ground with the help of a sickle.
  • Stacked the harvested crops for 7-10 days.
  • Complete threshing operation after proper drying.
Type of R&M Period of Maturity at Harvesting
Indian Mustard 110-160 days
Yellow Sarson 90-120 days

Post Harvesting Variety of Mustard

Mustard harvesting plants tied into bundles, keep them in the sun for 5 to 6 days to dry when the seed gets adequately dry, and then store seeds in gunny bags or bins. Threshing can carried out by hitting the mustard plants with a stick. Then, winnowing done to separate the grain from the husk.

Rainfed of Mustard Farming

  • Disc harrowing after every practical shower in monsoon helps in conserving moisture. On cessation of rain, planking should invariably followed after each harsh to avoid cloud formation and moisture loss.
  • Pulverize the soil before sowing using a cultivator.
  • Planking in irrigated and non irrigated land is essential to avoid cloud formation and prevent moisture loss.

Type of Mustard Seeds In India 

Type of Mustard Seeds In India

Following are the some best mustard varieties in India:-

PBT 37 

  • Early development of this variety of mustard.
  • Develops in 91 days.
  • It is suitable for Toria-wheat agriculture.
  • Seeds are dark brown and robust in size.
  • It provides an average yield of 5.4 QTL/acre, and seeds contain 41.7% oil.

TL 15 

  • It is an early maturity variety.
  • Required 88 days to mature.
  • It gives an average yield of 4.5 QTL/acre.

TL 17 

  • Ready to harvest in 90 days.
  • Suitable for multiple cropping.
  • It gives an average yield of 5.2 QTL/acre.

RLM 619 

  • It recommended for farming in irrigated and rainfed areas.
  • It is ready to collect in 143 days.
  • Its seed is bold and contains 43% oil.
  • It is resistant to white rust, mildew and downy mildew.
  • Gives an average yield of 8 QTL/acre.

PBR 91 

  • It gets ready to harvest in 145 days.
  • Resistant to blight, rust and insect pests.
  • It gives an average yield of 8.1 quintal/acre.

PBR 97 

  • Proper for cultivation under rainfed conditions.
  • Ready to harvest in 136 days.
  • Grains are medium bold and contain 39.8% oil content.
  • Gives an average yield of 5.2 QTL/acre.

PBR 210 

  • Suitable for timely sown and irrigated conditions.
  • Ready to harvest in 150 days.
  • It gives an average yield of 6 QTL/acre.

RLC 3 

  • Tall variety, ready to harvest in 145 days.
  • Its average yield is about 7.3 QTL/acre.
  • Its oil content is 41.5%.

GSL 1 

  • Ready to harvest in 160 days.
  • The crop is short and does not lodge easily.
  • It gives an average yield of 6.7 QTL/acre.
  • Seeds contain 44.5% oil content.


  • Ready to harvest in 162 days.
  • Tall and high yielding hybrids give an average yield of 7.9 QTL/acre.
  • Seeds content 44.5% oil content.

Hyola PAC 401 

  • It is a medium height crop and ready to mature in 150 days.
  • Seeds are brownish-black and contain about 42% oil.
  • It gives an average yield of 6.74 QTL/acre.

GSC 6 

  • Recommended for timely sown crop under irrigated condition.
  • Seeds are bold and contain 39.1% oil content.
  • It gives an average yield of 6.07 QTL/acre.

RH 0749 

  • Suitable for growing in North Rajasthan, Delhi, Jammu, Punjab and Haryana.
  • It is a high yielding variety having more seeds per silique.
  • Ready to harvest in 146-148 days.
  • Seeds are bold and have an oil percentage of 40%.
  • It gives an average yield of 10.5-11 QTL/acre.

T 59 (Varuna) 

  • It is suitable under all climatic conditions.
  • Ready to harvest in 145-150 days.
  • Gives an oil content of about 39%.
  • It gives an average yield of 6-8 QTL/acre.

These are the best methods of cultivation of mustard, which helps you do mustard farming in India. Hence, if you make a mustard farming business plan, these methods help you earn a high income. We hope you can get answers about how to plant mustard seeds and what is a mustard plant by this blog. To obtain information about implements for mustard cultivation in India, please visit Tractor Junction. Here, you get complete details on mustard farm machines, mustard production in India and many others. You can also get information about protected cultivation

FAQ Of Mustard Farming

Que. Which is the highest mustard producing state in India?

Ans : Rajasthan is the highest mustard producer in India. 

Que. Which country is the largest producer of mustard?

Ans : Canada is the largest producer of mustard in the world.

Que. What is the area under mustard cultivation in India?

Ans : The total area under mustard cultivation in India is 8.5 million hectare.

Que. What is the total mustard production in India? 

Ans : The total production of mustard in India is estimated to be 8,936.95 tonnes.


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