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Horticulture Farming in India – Types, Cost & Scope

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Horticulture is the science and art of growing horticultural crops such as:

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Spices
  • Condiments
  • Ornamental

Plantation of medicinal and aromatic plants

Horticultural crops require quality agri-inputs, farm mechanisation solutions and enough care right from growth to harvesting till the storage and processing stage. Do you know India is the 2nd leading country in fruit & vegetable production, right after China?

Almost  55–60% of the total population relies on agriculture and allied activities to attain food sufficiency and maintain a livelihood. Moreover, Horticultural crops constitute almost 70-80% of the total agricultural produce in India. Further, they involve a broad crop area and add to India’s GDP by almost 28%. Also, these crops also account for 37% of India’s total exports.

Let’s understand what horticulture is, how it benefits the ecosystem, and what types & costs it involves.

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What is Horticulture Farming in India?

Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with the production of crops, including fruits, vegetables, and even ornamental plants. Furthermore, the word “Horticulture” is extracted from Latin. Where in Latin, Hortus means “garden”, and colere means “to cultivate”.

Importance of Horticulture

Here are a few ways in which horticulture benefits the marginal farmers and the ecosystem around them.

  • Adds to a balanced diet 

The cultivation of fruits & vegetables provides proper nutrients for a balanced diet. The demand for fruits & Vegetables is ongoing and won’t be restricted anytime soon.

  • Income opportunities for marginal farmers

Farmers with the production of high-value crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers or herbs can earn an incessant flow of income. Moreover, Horticulture can be an engine for agricultural and economic diversification

Check out exotic fruits that are easy to cultivate and offer high revenue earning opportunities.

  • Better livelihood

The cultivation of in-demand crops helps farmers get access to diverse income-earning opportunities. Down the line, it helps farmers improve their livelihood. 

  • Women empowerment

Not just men but women can comfortably grow vegetables, fruits, and flowers to access a steady income. Provided, they should get equitable access to land, inputs, market and education to learn the cultivation basics.

  • Technological innovation

Since horticulture is a complex process, it invites scope to implement various prevalent technologies & techniques. Further, farmers can use “leapfrog” technologies to  reduce input costs for higher profitability.

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Access to information and research capacity

Farmers can use modern farming tractors, cultivars, management tools, and the market’s best techniques to achieve wide-level commercial success in horticulture. 

Moreover, applying reliable information, a well-trained workforce and precision farming tools extend their production and productivity.

Horticulture doesn’t just benefit the environment; it’s also profitable for businesses. Moreover, it also provides several health benefits. 

  • Horticulture aids employment in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors and the government.
  • It provides great earning opportunities for small and medium farmers dealing with the trade of horticultural crops, fruits or vegetables.
  • It lets people access diversified and balanced food options, which is important for maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

Horticulture is one of India’s most important development drivers. Moreover, it can be more lucrative than agriculture in several cases (food grains mainly).

Type of Horticulture Practised in India

Types of Horticulture

Here are a few popular types of Horticulture practices:

  1. Olericulture is a practice that involves the production of vegetables. Further, it is growing vegetables to further store, process, and market them for consumption. Vegetables under this branch are non-woody plants that grow annually. In addition, the person who practises this branch is called an Olericulturist.
  2. Pomology, or fruticulture, involves producing fruits & nuts. In this method, seed-bearing fruits are produced & marketed. Also, it involves fruits that grow on woody perennial plants like trees, vines & bushes. Whosoever pursues pomology is called a Pomologist.
  3. Floriculture involves the production of ornamental plants and flowering. It involves the process of growing and marketing flowers. Additionally, the people practising this branch of horticulture are called floriculturists.
  4. Viticulture is another type that involves the production of grapes (produced for winemaking)

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Scope of Horticulture in India

If we compile the total output of food grains for 2020-21, there has been a huge increase in food grain production in the country, registering 303.34 million tonnes. Furthermore, this number is higher by 5.84 million tonnes than the production of foodgrains of 297.50 million tonnes achieved in 2019-20. The data was shared by — the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare. It is safe to say that each day, India is getting one step closer to gaining sufficiency in food grain production in comparison to previous years.

Various degree programs are available to spread awareness about the complete knowledge of horticulture benefits, types & processes. In India, Horticulture Innovation Lab’s research, guided by the Global Horticulture Assessment, collaborates on a global level to address the challenges stopping horticulture development in India.

Here are popular crops that you can grow with less capital investment and add to your revenue.


Horticulture is a popular agricultural branch among marginal farmers and individuals looking to earn a steady income. However, the diverse cultivation under this branch allows farmers to choose the crop of their interest. With minimum investment and inputs, growers can earn high incomes and enhance their livelihood.

Hope the above benefits and schedule for popular horticulture crops inspire you to start cultivation in your state or city. For such intense horticulture farming, make sure you get your hands on optimum hp tractors and farming implements that are effective and efficient for any farm size.

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