Potato Farming In India – Cultivation, Planting & Harvesting

Potato Farming In India - Cultivation, Planting & Harvesting

Potato, the most important and widely consumed food in the World. This vegetable originated in South America, now grown all over the World. The scientific name of this super veggie is Solanum tuberosum L which is known as the “The king of vegetables”. It is the most economical food and is considered a friend of poor men. In India, Potatoes have a special identity in India and most people consume this delicious food. Hence, it is highly demanded among the Indian people. Due to the same, Potato farming has been done in the nation for more than 300 years. As a result, it is the 4th most important food crop after rice, wheat and maize.

It cultivated in 23 states of India. Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, and Gujarat are India’s major potato producing states. Best potato growing season is mid-June to mid-July and then during October and November. 

Potato crops belong to the nightshade family, Solanaceae and considered the World’s most significant food crop. They are a high source of starch, vitamins, especially C and B1 and minerals. Thus, they provide a source of low-cost energy to the human diet. Potatoes use for various industrial purposes, such as for the manufacture of starch and alcohol. Potato starch (Farina) use in clothing and in textile mills to shape yarn. Potatoes also use to make dextrin and glucose. As a food product, potatoes turn into dry goods such as ‘potato chips’, ‘sliced’ or ‘sliced ​​potatoes’.  

Potato Farming Facts 

Potato Farming Facts

Cultivation Of Potato in India 

India is one of the largest producers of potatoes as most of the people here choose it for cultivation. Potato cultivation is the best source of good earning. It helps to achieve a high income and make farming businesses successful. Hence, if you are a beginner or has less knowledge about potato farming and want complete information, check out this blog. Here, in this blog, we provided step by step guidelines for potato cultivation. The below-mentioned potato crop farming guides help to do cultivation of potatoes in India. 

Check out the method of potato cultivation in this blog. You will get the answers of how to grow potatoes, how to plant potatoes, how to grow potatoes, how to cultivate potatoes, etc. in one place. 

Soil & Climate Requirement For Potato Cultivation

Soil & Climate Requirement For Potato Cultivation

Potatoes easily grown in well-drained soil, but they hate soggy soil. So basically, potatoes can grow on any type of soil except saline and alkaline soils. Naturally, loose soil providing the least resistance to tuber expansion preferred. Sandy loam and loamy soil rich in organic matter with good drainage and aeration best suited for potato plant growing. Soil with a pH of 5.2-6.4 is best for potatoes. In terms of climate, Potatoes are grown at temperatures of 24℃ and tuber growth is good at temperatures of 20℃. Hence, the potato considered a cool-weather crop. For harvesting potatoes, 14-20°C temperature is ideal. Usually, well drained soil for potato cultivation is considered as important soil and productive soil. 

Land Preparation For Potato

The field should be ploughed by ploughing well-pulverized beds 20-25 cm deep. Harrowing should be done two or three times after ploughing. The soil should be levelled after one to two planking operations. Maintain enough moisture in the soil before sowing.

Suitable Potato Planting Or Sowing Time 

Suitable Potato Planting Or Sowing Time

Potatoes produced only under conditions where temperatures are slightly cooler during the growing season. Therefore, the sowing time varies from region to region. For instance, in the hills of Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, the spring crop sown in January-February, whereas the summer crop sown in May. In Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, the spring crop planted in January, whereas the main crop is in October. In Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka, the Kharif crop suppressed by the end of June, whereas the Rabi crop planted in mid-October-November.

How To Grow a Potato Plant? 

After 0-2 weeks of last spring, frost planted seed potatoes. If you want to cut potato pieces for planting, then do it 1-2 days ahead of time. This process makes a protective layer for both rot resistance and moisture retention. But remember that before planting, you have spread and mixed in organic compost or rotted manure in the bottom of the trench. Then plant potato seeds one foot apart in a 4-inch deep trench. 

Rows are the best option to grow potatoes. So, dig a trench 6-8 inches deep and plant each piece of potato every 12-15 inches with the row spaced 3 feet apart. And if you have a small area or want to grow baby potatoes, you can decrease the spacing between plants. Then, let the plants start to grow and continue to fill the trench. Even mound the soil around the plants as they continue to grow. Before planting, always ensure to cultivate the soil one last time. This process will remove the weeds and loosen the soil, allowing the potato plant to become established more quickly.  

Requirement of Irrigation For Potato Agriculture

Requirement of Irrigation For Potato Agriculture

For the good growth of cultivation of potato crop, keep the potato vines well watered in summer, especially during the flowering of plants and immediately follow the flowering stages. The plants form their tubers in the flowering period, and a steady water supply is important for best results. Potatoes need constant moisture, so keep watering regularly as 1-2 inches of water or rain per week is suitable for potato production. When the leaves turn yellow and begin to die back, stop watering. It will help the potatoes start to heal for harvest time. Drip irrigation helps potato farmers to enhance potato yield.

Crop Rotation for Potato Farming

Crop Rotation for Potato Farming

Crop rotation is a very important step for the good growth of crops. Similarly, avoid planting potatoes in the same field year after year. So, proper crop rotations increase soil fertility, reduce specific pest problems, conserve soil moisture, help maintain soil structure and increase soil organic matter. 

The cropping Rotation is as follows.

  • Punjab: Potato-Wheat-Maize, Potato-Wheat-Paddy, Potato-Wheat-Green manure crop
  • Assam: Potato-Mung-Paddy (Transplanted)
  • Bihar: Potato-Mung- Paddy; Potato-Mung-Groundnut
  • Madhya Pradesh: Potato-Okra-Soybean
  • Gujarat & Uttar Pradesh: Potato-Bajra-Groundnut

Care and Pests in Potato Plantation 

Care and Pests in Potato Plantation

Aphids, Flea Beetles, Leafhoppers, Early/Late Blight, Potato Scab, are dangerous pests for potatoes. They most likely cause by soil with high pH. Remember, potatoes better grown in acidic soil (don’t plant in soil with a pH higher than 5.2). Also, dust the seed potatoes with sulfur before planting.

Manure & Fertilizer For Potato Cultivation Process

Manure & Fertilizer For Potato Cultivation Process

Chemical fertilizer use depends on available soil nutrient levels—volcanic soils, for example, typically lack phosphorus—and in fertilizer requirements, irrigated commercial production is relatively high. However, potatoes can benefit from using organic fertilizer at the start of a new rotation – this provides a good nutrient balance and maintains soil structure. The fertilizer requirements of the crop need to be accurately estimated according to the expected yield, potential of the variety and the use of the harvested crop.

For potato cultivation in India, aged or composted manure is the best when access to animal manures. First, add compost to the soil in the fall before planting to give soil microbes time and break it down into valuable nutrients. Then, spread the manure over the garden before folding it into the top 6-8 inches of soil with a plough and shovel or rotary tiller-hoe. 

Potato Harvesting Process 

Potato Harvesting Process

  • The best Harvesting time of potato is 75-120 days after planting, depending on the area of sowing, soil type and variety. 
  • In hills, the crop should generally harvested when the soil is not too wet. 
  • To remove potatoes, gently dig around the plants for fresh eating but be careful not to be too intrusive. 
  • Try to remove the big new potatoes and leave the smaller ones in place to continue growing. 
  • When leaves turn yellow and dry, then harvest the potato crop. 
  • If there is high demand in the market, then you can slightly harvest the crop. 
  • Before harvesting, do irrigation and harvesting done when soil becomes dry. 
  • Cut the plant at ground level 8 days before harvesting. It done by a potato digger or by a plough. 

These are the best methods of cultivation of potato, which helps you do potato farming in India. Hence, if you make a potato farming business plan, these methods help you earn a high income through it. To get information about implements for potato crop cultivation in India, please visit Tractor Junction. Here, you get complete information about potato farming machine, potato cultivation techniques and many others. 

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